Behavior Analysis in Practice
Springer International Publishing
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School’s Out for COVID-19: 50 Ways BCBA Trainees in Special Education Settings Can Accrue Independent Fieldwork Experience Hours During the Pandemic
DOI 10.1007/s40617-020-00434-x, Volume: 13, Issue: 2,
Abstract

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide executive orders closing schools, many trainees completing their supervised independent fieldwork in educational settings lost the ability to accrue hours linked to restricted activities of a therapeutic and instructional nature with students (i.e., clients). Given the impact on trainees of the pandemic restrictions, we present 50 suggestions for trainees in school settings to continue to accrue hours for both restricted and unrestricted activities throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords
Fronapfel and Demchak: School’s Out for COVID-19: 50 Ways BCBA Trainees in Special Education Settings Can Accrue Independent Fieldwork Experience Hours During the Pandemic

As of April 6, 2020, officials in all 50 states issued orders for school closures through the month of April in response to COVID-19. Such closures are an effort to decrease the spread of COVID-19 through antecedent/preventative measures such as social distancing. At present, many states have school closures through the month of May. However, some states have closed schools for the remainder of the academic year, whereas other states such as North Dakota and New Jersey have closed until further notice. Officials in U.S. territories, such as Puerto Rico, have also issued closures until the middle of April (Peele & Riser-Kositsky, 2020).

As a result of the nationwide closures, Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) trainees completing their supervised independent fieldwork in public and private school settings abruptly lost the ability to accrue hours at rates available prior to the pandemic. Because supervision in function and nature is to support trainees in relation to ethical practice, quality of services, professional growth and competence, and work productivity (Kazemi, Rice, & Adzhyan, 2019), supervisors should continue to perform ethical supervision even under the present conditions and provide opportunities for their trainees to continue to accrue hours for both restricted and unrestricted activities.

Given the limited number of contact hours trainees currently have with their students, those contacts may not even provide the opportunity to engage in behavior-analytic activity. As a result, it is crucial to provide a means of accrual for this specific group of trainees to continue to engage in a comprehensive supervised experience during this unprecedented time. The purpose of this article is to present 50 ways trainees can accrue experience hours that are linked to the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) 4th and 5th Edition Task Lists (BACB, 2012, 2017).

Overview of Potential Unrestricted Activities

Given the constraint on student (i.e., client) contact, which eliminates the ability to accrue restricted hours, we emphasize BCBA trainees focus on unrestricted activities aimed at building skills related to developing programs and plans for implementation with their students. Unrestricted activities are vital for the preparation of behavior analysts. Table 1 provides a detailed listing of potential activities, Task List linkage, and sample supporting literature for selected activities. Moreover, supervisor observations of and contacts with trainees can occur with many of these activities using various web-based conferencing technologies.

Table 1.
Examples of Unrestricted Trainee Activities Linked to the BACB 4th and 5th Edition Task Lists
ActivityCorresponding 4th Task List ItemCorresponding 5th Task List ItemRelevant Literature Examples for Selected Activities
1. Summarize acquisition data collected prior to school closure (trials to criterion, etc.).A-07, A-09, H-04, H-05, I-05C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-11

Barton, E. E., & Reichow, B. (2012). Guidelines for graphing data with Microsoft PowerPoint for Office 2007. Journal of Early Intervention, 34 , 129–150. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815112456601; Dixon, M. R., Jackson, J. W., Small, S. L., Horner-King, M. J., Ker Lik, N. M., Garcia, Y., & Rosales, R. (2009). Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 277–293. 10.1901/jaba.2009.42-277

Fuller, T. C., & Dubuque, E. M. (2019). Integrating phase change lines and labels into graphs in Microsoft Excel®. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 12, 293–299. 10.1007/s40617-018-0248-6

2. Design, plot, and interpret data in various graphical formats.A-10, A-11C-10
3. Assess and interpret interobserver agreement.A-08C-8Ledford, J. R., Lane, J. D., & Gast, D. L. (2018). Dependent variables, measurement, and reliability. In J. R. Ledford & D. L. Gast (Eds.), Single case research methodology (3rd ed., chapter 5). New York, NY: Routledge.
4. Review graphed data of learner performance and make data-based decisions for future modifications to instructional plans.I-05H-7, H-8

Browder, D. M., Demchak, M., Heller, M., & King, D. (1989). An in vivo evaluation of the use of data-based rules to guide instructional decisions. Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 14 , 234–240. 10.1177/154079698901400309; Demchak, M., & Sutter, C. (2019). Teachers’ perception of use and actual use of a data-based decision-making. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 54, 175–185.

Jimenez, B. A., Mims, P. J., & Browder, D. M. (2012). Data-based decisions guidelines for teachers of students with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 407–413.

5. Review data collection methods to determine most appropriate methods for plans.H-01 to H-05C-2, C-7, C-9

Fiske, K., & Delmolino, L. (2012). Use of discontinuous methods of data collection in behavioral intervention: Guidelines for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5(2), 77–81. 10.1007/BF03391826

LeBlanc, L. A., Raetz, P. B., Sellers, T. P., & Carr, J. E. (2016). A proposed model for selecting measurement procedures for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9, 77–83. https://10.1007/s40617-015-0063-2

6. Develop data sheets for behavior support plans.

A-01 to A-14 (as applicable),

I-01

C-1 to C-9Bambara, L. M., & Knoster, T. P. (2009). Designing positive behavior support plans (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: AAIDD.
7. Develop data sheets for instructional plans.

A-01 to A-14 (as applicable),

I-01

C-1 to C-9Collins, B. (2012). Systematic instruction for students with moderate and severe disabilities (chapter 2). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
8. Develop and write instructional plans for (learner) skill acquisition.

D-01 to D-21 (as applicable),

E-01 to E-13 (as applicable),

F-01 to F-08 (as applicable),

G-01 to G-08 (as applicable),

J-01 to J-15 (as applicable)

G-1 to G-22, H-1 to H-5, H-6 to H-9 (if plan is to be implemented via telehealth)Collins, B. C., Lo, Y., Park, G., & Haughney, K. (2018). Response prompting as an ABA-based instructional approach for teaching students with disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 50, 343–355. 10.1177/0040059918774920
9. Research literature to support instructional plans.B-01, B-02H-2
10. Research literature on response-prompting procedures to use within instructional plans for skill acquisition (e.g., least-to-most prompts, most-to-least prompts, constant time delay, progressive time delay, graduated guidance).B-01, B-02G-4

Cengher, M., Budd, A., Farrell, N., & Fienup, D. M. (2018). A review of prompt-fading procedures: Implications for effective and efficient skill acquisition. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 30, 155–173. 10.1007/s10882-017-9575-8

Demchak, M. (1990). Response prompting and fading methods: A review. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94, 603–615.

Walker, G. (2008). Constant and progressive time delay procedures for teaching children with autism: A literature review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 265–271.

11. Demonstrate competence in implementing response-prompting procedures through role-play with supervisor and other trainees.D-03G-4
12. Teach response-prompting procedures specific to learners to parents and/or other educational staff.D-03, K-03G-4, I-4Sawyer, M. R., Andzik, N. R., Kranak, M. P., Wilke, C. P., Curiel, E. S. L., Hensley, L. E., & Neef, N. A. (2017). Improving pre-service teachers’ performance skills through behavioral skills training. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10, 296–300. 10.1007/s40617-017-0198-4
13. Research literature on chaining procedures (i.e., forward chaining, backward chaining, total task) to use within instructional plans for skill acquisition.B-01, B-02G-8

Jameson, J. M., Walker, R., Utley, K., & Maughan, R. (2012). A comparison of embedded total task instruction in teaching behavioral chains to massed one-on-one instruction for students with intellectual disabilities: Accessing general education settings and core academic content. Behavior Modification, 36, 320–340. 10.1177/0145445512440574

Slocum, S. K., & Tiger, J. H. (2011). An assessment of the efficiency of and child preference for forward and backward chaining. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 793–805. 10.1901/jaba.2011.44-793

14. Demonstrate competence in implementing chaining procedures through role-play with supervisor and other trainees.D-06G-8
15. Teach chaining procedures specific to learners to parents and/or other educational staff.D-06, K-03G-8, I-4
16. Research literature on shaping procedures to use within instructional plans for skill acquisition.B-01, B-02G-7

Ghaemmaghami, M., Hanley, G. P., Jessel, J., & Landa, R. (2018). Shaping complex functional communication responses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51, 502–520. 10.1002/jaba.468

Turner, V. R., Ledford, J. R., Lord, A. K., & Harbin, E. R. (2020). Response shaping to improve food acceptance for children with autism: Effects of small and large food sets. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 98.10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103574

17. Demonstrate competence in implementing shaping procedures through role-play with supervisor and other trainees.D-05G-7
18. Teach shaping procedures specific to learners to parents and/or other educational staff.D-05, K-03G-7, I-4
19. Research literature on imitation, modeling, and video modeling for use in learner instructional plans.B-01, B-02G-5, H-2

Aldi, C., Crigler, A., Kates-McElrath, K., Long, B., Smith, H., Rehak, K., & Wilkinson, L. (2016). Examining the effects of video modeling and prompts to teach activities of daily living skills. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9, 384–388. 10.1007/s40617-016-0127-y

Baker, S. D., Lang, R., & O’Reilly, M. (2009). Review of video modeling with students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 32, 403–420.

Gilson, C. B., & Carter, E. W. (2018). Video-based instruction to promote employment-related social behaviors for high school students with intellectual disability. Inclusion, 6, 175–193. 10.1352/2326-6988-6.3.175

20. Interpret previously collected functional behavior assessment (FBA) data.G-01 to G-05, I-05F-9Cipani, E., & Schock, K. M. (2011). Functional behavioral assessment, diagnosis, and treatment: A complete system for education and mental health settings (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
21. Write support plans based on FBA data collected prior to district closures.

D-01 to D-21 (as applicable),

E-01 to E-13 (as applicable),

F-01 to F-08 (as applicable),

G-01 to G-08 (as applicable),

J-01 to J-15 (as applicable)

F-9, G-1 to G-22 (as applicable)

Geiger, K. B., Carr, J. E., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2010). Function-based treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior: A treatment-selection model for practicing behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 3(1), 22–32. 10.1007/BF03391755

Lipschultz, J., & Wilder, D. A. (2017). Recent research on the high-probability instructional sequence: A brief review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50, 424–428. 10.1002/jaba.378

Schieltz, K. M., Wacker, D. P., & Romani, P. W. (2017). Effects of signaled positive reinforcement on problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Journal of Behavioral Education, 26, 137–150. 10.1007/s10864-016-9265-0

Tiger, J. H., Hanley, G. P., & Bruzek, J. (2008). Functional communication training: A review and practical guide. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 1, 16–23. 10.1007/BF03391716

22. Plan for training of others (e.g., parents, paraprofessionals) to implement behavior support plans with integrity.K-02, K-03I-01 to I-03Hogan, A., Knez, N., & Kahng, S. (2015). Evaluating the use of behavioral skills training to improve school staffs’ implementation of behavior intervention plans. Journal of Behavioral Education, 24, 242–254. 10.1007/s10864-014-9213-9
23. State and plan for unwanted effects of reinforcement, punishment, and extinction in relation to acquisition instructional plans.C-01 to C-03H-05Albarran, S. A., & Sandbank, M. P. (2019). Teaching non-target information to children with disabilities: An examination of instructive feedback literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 28, 107–140. 10.1007/s10864-018-9301-3
24. State and plan for unwanted effects of reinforcement, punishment, and extinction in relation to behavior support plans.C-01 to C-03H-05

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (Eds.). (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed., chapters 11 and 13). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.

Smith, R. G., & Iwata, B. A. (2020). Negative reinforcement. In J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, & W. L. Heward (Eds.), Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed., chapter 12). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.

25. We proposed video samples for the students to use to practice data collection.A-01 to A-07C-03 to C-07LeBlanc, L. A., Raetz, P. B., Sellers, T. P., & Carr, J. E. (2016). A proposed model for selecting measurement procedures for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9, 77–83. https://10.1007/s40617-015-0063-2
26. Research stimulus preference assessments for learners.B-01, B-02H-2Tullis, C. A., Cannella-Malone, H. A., Basbigill, A. R., Yeager, A., Fleming, C. V., Payne, D., & Wu, P.-F. (2011). Review of the choice and preference assessment literature for individuals with severe to profound disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 576–595.
27. Script stimulus preference assessments for learners.I-07F-5Cannella-Malone, H. I., Sabielny, L. M., Jimenez, E. D., & Miller, M. M. (2013). Pick one! Conducting preference assessments with students with significant disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 45(6), 16–23. 10.1177/004005991304500602
28. Role-play conducting stimulus preference assessments in preparation for use with learners.I-07F-5
29. Train personnel (e.g., aides) to competently conduct stimulus preference assessments.I-07, K-03I-4, I-5Higgins, W. J., Luczynski, K. C., Carroll, R. A., Fisher, W. W., & Mudford, O. C. (2017). Evaluation of a telehealth training package to remotely train staff to conduct a preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50, 238–251. 10.1002/jaba.370
30. If accessible, review records and existing data (e.g., educational, medical, historical).G-01F-1None identified.
31. Conduct assessments related to identifying skill strengths and weaknesses (e.g., Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales).I-03, I-04F-4

Kritikos, E. P., McLoughlin, J. A., & Lewis, R. B. (2018). Assessing students with special needs (8th ed., chapter 8). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.

Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. E., & Witmer, S. (2017). Assessment in special and inclusive education (13th ed., chapter 13). Boston, MA: Cengage.

32. Score, interpret, and summarize results of assessments completed to identify skill strengths and weaknesses.I-05F-2, F-3, F-4Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. E., & Witmer, S. (2017). Assessment in special and inclusive education (13th ed., chapter 4). Boston, MA: Cengage.
33. Review results of previously completed assessments to determine priority goals.I-05F-2, F-3, F-4Cohen, L. G., & Spenciner, L. J. (2015). Assessment of children and youth with special needs (5th ed., chapter 7). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.
34. Prepare for conducting FBA upon reopening of schools by completing indirect assessment methods to lay the groundwork for conducting antecedent-behavior-consequence analyses of behavior.H-01 to H-03, I-01 to I-04F-7OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions, Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Hieneman, M., Lewis, T. J., . . . Turnbull, A. P. (2000). Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 131–143. 10.1177/109830070000200302
35. Research literature for skill maintenance and generalization for existing learner instructional plans.B-01, B-02G-21, G-22, H-2Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367. 10.1901/jaba.1977.10-349
36. Develop plans based on research targeting maintenance and generalization of skills.J-11, J-12G-21, G-22, H-2, H-3
37. Research literature regarding effective delivery of parent training.B-01, B-02H-2, H-3Black, M. E., & Therrien, W. J. (2018). Parent training programs for school-age children with autism: A systematic review. Remedial and Special Education, 39, 243–256. 10.1177/0741932517730645
38. Develop plans for compassionate delivery of intervention to parents/families (which is especially important during stress of pandemic).K-02, K-03, K-08H-9Taylor, B. A., LeBlanc, L. A., & Nosik, M. R. (2018). Compassionate care in behavior analytic treatment: Can outcomes be enhanced by attending to relationships with caregivers? Behavior Analysis Practice, 12, 654–666. 10.1007/s40617-018-00289-3
39. Research literature regarding telehealth.B-01, B-02H-2Tomlinson, S. R. L., Gore, N., & McGill, P. (2018). Training individuals to implement applied behavior analytic procedures via telehealth: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 27, 172–222. 10.1007/s10864-018-9292-0
40. Conduct parent training via telehealth.K-01 to K-10I-1 to I-8Ferguson, J., Craig, E. A., & Dounavi, K. (2019). Telehealth as a model for providing behaviour analytic interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49, 582–616. 10.1007/s10803-018-3724-5
41. Conduct interobserver agreement checks on data collection sheets that will be utilized during services delivered via telehealth or by caregivers.A-09C-8Ledford, J. R., Lane, J. D., & Gast, D. L. (2018). Dependent variables, measurement, and reliability. In J. R. Ledford & D. L. Gast (Eds.), Single case research methodology (3rd ed., chapter 5). New York, NY: Routledge.
42. Conduct treatment integrity checks for programs delivered via telehealth or by caregivers.K-05H-6Rodriguez, K. (2020). Maintaining treatment integrity in the face of crisis: A treatment selection model for transitioning direct ABA services to telehealth. Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication. 10.31234/osf.io/phtgv
43. Make data-based decisions regarding effectiveness of interventions delivered via telehealth or by caregivers.J-15H-6 to H-9Allen, K. D., & Warzak, W. J. (2000). The problem of parental nonadherence in clinical behavior analysis: Effective treatment is not enough. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 373–391. 10.1901/jaba.2000.33-373
44. Research literature related to effective staff training methods.B-01, B-02H-2Parsons, M. B., Rollyson, J. H., & Reid, D. H. (2012). Evidence-based staff training: A guide for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 2–11. 10.1007/BF03391819
45. Research literature related to effective performance feedback.B-01, B-02H-2Scheeler, M., Ruhl, K., & McAfee, J. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27, 396–407. 10.1177/088840640402700407
46. Conduct virtual staff training (with paraprofessionals) related to plans for specific learners.K-03I-4, I-5Tomlinson, S. R. L., Gore, N., & McGill, P. (2018). Training individuals to implement applied behavior analytic procedures via telehealth: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 27, 172–222. 10.1007/s10864-018-9292-0
47. Conduct treatment integrity checks on staff training.K-05H-6Peterson, L., Homer, A., & Wonderlich, S. (1982). The integrity of independent variables in behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 477–492. 10.1901/jaba.1982.15-477
48. Analyze data regarding telehealth delivery of plans.H-04, H-05C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-11Spriggs, A. D., Lane, J. D., & Gast, D. L. (2018). Visual representation of data. In J. R. Ledford & D. L. Gast (Eds.), Single case research methodology (3rd ed., chapter 5). New York, NY: Routledge.
49. Conduct ethical activities related to practice under present pandemic conditions (i.e., risk/benefit analysis for support plans and possible intervention via one to one or via telehealth).B-01, B-02, G-07E-1, E-2, E-6, E-7, H-2

Cox, D. J., Plavnick, J., & Brodhead, M. T. (2020). A proposed process for risk mitigation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication.

10.31234/osf.io/buetn

Analysis and Use of Data

Despite nationwide school closures, trainees may continue to have access to data and support plans that were in place prior to the pandemic. These data provide multiple opportunities for unrestricted hours. First, instructional/acquisition data that were collected prior to school closures can be graphed and analyzed to provide a summary of skill acquisition to be discussed with parents and other school staff. The graphed data can also identify future skill acquisition rates. Reviewing these data may result in data-based modifications to the current plans to facilitate skill acquisition. Trainees can also research the literature regarding data-based decision making and how data inform instructional strategies to be used.

Additionally, trainees can analyze functional behavior assessment (FBA) data that were collected prior to school closures and summarize the data in graphical displays. A review of these data may result in a summary report that identifies conditions under which the behavior was occurring and related recommendations.

Data sheets that trainees modify after analyzing preclosure data, or data sheets that are developed in conjunction with instructional or support plans, can be used to demonstrate interobserver reliability prior to use.

Modifications to Instructional Plans and Behavior Support Plans

As trainees review data and make data-based decisions, they can complete modifications to plans, as well as develop additional behavior-analytic instruction and related data sheets. Trainees might also review the literature to identify instructional strategies, such as response and stimulus prompts, and to learn how to plan for skill maintenance and generalization and include these methods in instructional plans. This research might aid trainees in developing plans for their learners to promote maintenance and generalization of skills through remote-learning procedures being implemented.

Similarly, analysis of FBA results can then be used to develop or modify behavior support plans. Additionally, research can be conducted on relevant antecedent and consequence strategies, as well as for planning for maintenance and generalization. Just as generalization and maintenance strategies might be used in remote-learning procedures related to instructional plans, they can also be used in remote delivery of services related to behavior support plans.

Development of New Instructional Plans

Trainees can continue to develop and write new instructional plans for their learners’ continued skill acquisition via the virtual-teaching format or for use upon school reopening. Supporting literature for instructional plans can also be researched, read, and applied to instructional plans. This research can focus on any number of behavior-analytic strategies such as response prompting, shaping, chaining, modeling, and video modeling. Some of these strategies may be new to trainees and might require scripting and role-playing so they may demonstrate competency prior to use with their students.

Assessment

Research of the literature can also be conducted regarding preference assessments for students, and resulting scripts, data sheets, and other corresponding materials can then be prepared. Using these materials, trainees can role-play preference assessments with a supervisor, or in a virtual group supervision session, allowing trainees to demonstrate competence with the task prior to conducting it with a student.

Although it is impossible to conduct direct observations of student behavior in the school setting when schools are closed, trainees might prepare for conducting certain assessments upon the reopening of schools. For example, they may work on indirect assessment methods linked to conducting an FBA to lay the groundwork for conducting antecedent-behavior-consequence analyses of behavior.

Trainees might also conduct assessments related to the identification of skill strengths and weaknesses for instructional planning. For example, most standardized adaptive behavior instruments (e.g., Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) are done via a third-party respondent and do not require direct observation. Trainees can complete such assessments; score, summarize, and identify skill strengths and weaknesses; and use these results to plan for future instruction.

Research and Design of Supports Delivered via Telehealth

Despite the limitations of applied service delivery via telehealth, there are opportunities for trainees to accrue hours for unrestricted activities. For example, trainees can research literature that demonstrates effective modalities of parent training and use the methods during role-play situations during individual and group supervision sessions. Additionally, trainees can demonstrate competence using parent-training methods during the delivery of telehealth. Likewise, literature related to effective staff training methodologies (i.e., behavior skills training) can be researched and the methodologies role-played by trainees in various scenarios in order for them to demonstrate competence prior to implementation in a telehealth delivery format. Following competent performance, trainees can utilize the methods to deliver staff training to paraprofessionals and other school staff related to their learners’ support plans. Last, trainees can contact the literature and derived ethical activities created by their supervisors related to the practice of behavior analysis under the present pandemic conditions. Additional material can be acquired from various organizations, such as the BACB and the Association of Professional Behavior Analysts, who are providing practice guidance through this unprecedented time.

If telehealth delivery is deemed ethically appropriate, trainees can provide instruction via this format to accrue hours for restricted activities with their learners. The appropriateness of this technology should be gauged in a risk/benefit analysis and implemented only with learners for which the delivery will lead to effective instruction. Table 2 provides a potential restricted activity, Task List linkage, and sample supporting literature.

Table 2.
Restricted Trainee Activities Linked to the BACB 4th and 5th Edition Task Lists
ActivityCorresponding 4th Task List ItemCorresponding 5th Task List ItemRelevant Literature Examples
1. Deliver via telehealth instructional plans, under supervision.KE-1 to E-6, F-4 to F-7, F-9, G-1 to G-22 (as applicable), H-6 to H-9

Lerman, D. C., O’Brien, M. J., Neely, L., Call, N. A., Tsami, L., Schieltz, K. M., . . . Cooper-Brown, L. (2020). Remote coaching of caregivers via telehealth: Challenges and potential solutions. Journal of Behavioral Education. Retrieved from https://rdcu.be/b3man

Tomlinson, S. R. L., Gore, N., & McGill, P. (2018). Training individuals to implement applied behavior analytic procedures via telehealth: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 27, 172–222. 10.1007/s10864-018-9292-0

Consideration of Labor Laws

When assigning and supervising the unrestricted activities described in this article, give careful consideration to all applicable labor laws. If trainees were working in an hourly paid position to perform these unrestricted activities before the COVID-19 crisis, then labor law may require that they get paid to do these activities now, in which case doing them voluntarily may be unintentionally violating labor law. Therefore, care must be taken to make it clear to everyone involved that the unrestricted activities are not part of any paid job and are purely for training/academic purposes. It is, of course, the responsibility of all BCBAs providing supervision to ensure they and their supervisees comply with applicable laws, and no article—including this one—could possibly give specific guidance that would be relevant to all labor laws in all regions.

Conclusion

Despite the unexpected impact of the nationwide school closures due to COVID-19, trainees accruing hours in the educational setting can continue their supervisory experience using the 50 tasks described in this article. Although this list is not inclusive of all opportunities for hours, it provides an easy reference for relevant activities for supervisors and trainees linked to both the 4th and 5th Edition Task Lists (BACB, 2012, 2017) and relevant literature for selected activities that could be used during this unexpected time.

Notes

This manuscript is being published on a highly expedited basis, as part of a series of emergency publications designed to help practitioners of applied behavior analysis take immediate action to adjust to and mitigate the COVID-19 crisis. This article was submitted on April 7, 2020, and received final acceptance on April 11, 2020. The journal would like to especially thank Dr. Megan Aclan and Dr. Michael Cameron for their expeditious reviews of the manuscript. The views and strategies suggested by the articles in this series do not represent the positions of the Association for Behavior Analysis International or Springer Nature.
Publisher’s Note:

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Neither author has conflicts of interest to report in relation to this writing.

Ethical Approval

This writing did not involve the use of human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was not required for this work.

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